劉曉波逝世兩周年「亡靈卻活在反抗中」Remembering Liu Xiaobo -2nd anniversary



「亡靈」二字,穿插於劉曉波的詩歌和文章。自投身八九民運後,劉曉波便走上一條不歸路,將此後的人生奉獻給「六四」亡靈。2010年,劉曉波於獄中知悉獲得諾貝爾和平獎,即對妻子劉霞哭說:「這個獎首先是給六四亡靈的。」

如今,劉曉波也成了「六四」亡靈之一。「在絕望中,唯一給予我希望的,就是記住亡靈。」 劉曉波曾經這樣說。如今我們所能做的,也就是記住亡靈,與亡靈一起尋找真相和公義。

渴望自由的人死去
亡靈卻活在反抗中
逃避自由的人活着
靈魂卻死於恐懼中

面對絕對空無
面對野蠻的劫掠
有一種堅韌
巍然不動
猶如從內心取走一束光
照亮一條路

——劉曉波〈六四17周年祭〉

“Souls of the deceased” is the theme that is permeated throughout the poetry and writing of the Chinese Nobel Peace Laureate Liu Xiaobo. After the 1989 Tiananmen democracy movement, Liu embarked on a path of no return, and on many levels, he devoted his life for the “Souls of the deceased” of June 4th Massacre.

In 2010, Liu was realised that he won the Nobel Peace Prize during his sentence in prison. Immediately, in tears, he said to his wife Liu Xia, “This prize is dedicated to the deceased souls of June 4th Massacre.”

Today, Liu Xiaobo became one of the “souls of deceased victims″. Liu once said, ” In the depth of Hopelessness, the only thing that gave me hope was to remember those souls of the victims.” All we can do today is to remember them, and to join them in the process of seeking truth and justice.

Below is a poem from Liu Xiaobo , about “June 4th Massacre”:

“Those who sought freedom are dead and gone
Souls of the victims are living in the midst of the struggle
Those who deny freedom live on
But their souls die in fear
Faced with despair, all seemed empty
Faced with barbaric violence
Their is a persistence that could not be doubted
As if there was a beam of light
Taken from the most truthful inner heart
Shining a passageway”


–Poem by Liu Xiaobo “written to commemorate the 17th anniversary of the June 4th Massacre”





【一個國家囚徒】
劉曉波投身民主運動30餘載,先後四度繫獄,累計長達15年:

✽1989年6月6日至1991年1月,因參與八九民運,被以「反革命宣傳煽動罪」被捕入獄,並遭開除公職。

✽1995年5月,因提出平反「六四」第二次被囚禁,至1996年1月獲釋。

✽1996年10月,因發表《雙十宣言》第三次被捕,判勞教3年。1999年10月獲釋後,繼續發表文章要求政治改革。

✽2008年12月,因參與發起《零八憲章》第四次被捕。2009年12月25日被以「煽動顛覆國家政權罪」判刑11年,所謂「罪證」是《零八憲章》和6篇文章。

【一生懺悔贖罪】


八九民運爆發之際,劉曉波正在美國哥倫比亞大學訪問,在「四二六社論」發表後毅然回國參與民運。

1989年6月2日,他與侯德健、高新、周舵絕食支持學生,被稱為「天安門四君子」。6月3日晚戒嚴部隊入城,「四君子」力勸學生撤離,避免了廣場上更大的流血。

「六四」屠殺後,劉曉波躲進外交公寓兩日,婉拒去澳洲使館避難,6月6日於回家途中被捕。1991年劉曉波被判「反革命宣傳煽動罪」,但因「認罪悔罪並有重大立功表現(組織學生撤離)」免於刑事處分。

1992年他寫下懺悔錄——《末日倖存者的獨白》,坦誠自己於運動期間的英雄主義與功名心,認為自己的悔罪出賣了個人尊嚴,亦出賣「六四」亡靈的血。對於「六四」的愧疚,貫穿劉曉波一生。

【一張空凳典禮】

2010年10月8日,諾貝爾評選委員會將和平獎授予劉曉波,「表彰他為爭取和維護中國基本人權所進行的長期的、非暴力的努力」。

同年12月10日,挪威奧斯陸市政廳莊嚴的台上,一張無人的椅子,一場主角缺席的頒獎禮,造就了諾貝爾和平獎史上最動人也最令人遺憾的一幕。劉曉波離世後,諾貝爾委員會主席安德森發表聲明悼念,「我們明白到這張凳將永遠留空(his chair will forever remain empty)」。

劉曉波成為繼納粹德國時期和平主義者奧西艾茲基(Carl von Ossietzky)後,在押死亡的另一位和平獎得主。

【一場死亡直播】

2017年6月26日,遼寧省監獄管理局通報劉曉波確診末期肝癌並獲保外就醫,外界紛紛敦促中國讓劉曉波按個人意願出國就醫,但當局不予理會、嚴密監控,全世界只能看著劉曉波一點一點的死去。7月13日劉曉波病逝,當局於3日內火速將其遺體火化和海葬,打壓各地悼念活動。

【一份無盡的愛】

在劉曉波逝世約一年後,劉霞終於獲准前往德國,但至今無法接受丈夫離世的事實。自劉曉波2010年獲諾貝爾和平獎後,劉霞便被當局軟禁在家,患上嚴重抑鬱症、心臟病,其弟劉暉更受牽連被判刑11年。

「即使我被碾成粉末,我也會用灰燼擁抱你」,劉曉波在《我沒有敵人——我的最後陳述》裏傾訴對妻子的深情和愧疚,他的愛更超越個人和家庭,「我希望自己能夠超越個人的遭遇來看待國家的發展和社會的變化,以最大的善意對待政權的敵意,以愛化解恨。」劉曉波去世後,「天安門母親」丁子霖稱讚他「擁有的人間大愛,是世上任誰都無法比擬的」。

A Prisoner of State:

During the 30 years of lobbying for Democratic reforms, Liu was imprisoned on 4 separate occasions, summarily serving 15 years in jail:

✽From 6th June 1989 to January 1991, he experienced dismissal from his job and imprisonment for participating in the 1989 democracy movement under the charge of “counter-revolutionary propaganda and incitement.”

✽From May 1995 to Jan 1996, he was jailed for the second time, for attempting to organise a peaceful protest about the events of June 4th Massacre.

✽From Oct 1996 to Oct 1999, Liu was jailed for the third time for expressing his opinions about the State sanctioned guidelines that addressed the issue of Taiwan and China, from the historic points of view of the two armies during the modern Chinese Civil War. When Liu was released, he continued to publish articles to call for political reforms.

✽From Dec 2008, Liu was arrested for the fourth time for drafting “Charter 08”. On the 25th Dec 2009, he was charged with "inciting subversion of state power"  and sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment. The apparent evidence presented to court was the “Charter 08” and 6 other of his articles.

A lifelong confession for redemption

When the Tiananmen democracy movement began in 1989, Liu Xiaobo was a visiting scholar at Columbia University in the USA. He returned to China in April of that year to support the democracy movement.

On 2 June 1989, him and three other colleagues engaged in a hunger strike demanding democratic reform; they were nicknamed “four gentlemen of Tiananmen Square”.

On the night of 3 June, the army received an order to enter the city, the “four gentlemen” urged the other students to dispel in order to mitigate the bloodshed arising from army violence.

After the slaughter of protesters on 4 June, Liu hid for two days to avoid arrest, then sought help in the Australian Embassy as his life was being threatened. By 6 June, he tried to return home and was arrested en route.

An empty Chair for a Nobel Peace Laureate….

On 8 October 2010, Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu Xiaobo in recognition for “his lifelong peaceful effort in upholding and protecting basic Human Rights in China.”

At the award ceremony on 10 December 2010 in Norway, Liu’s absence was symbolically highlighted by the Empty Chair, placed on the stage and displayed to the world. It became a moving and regretful image in the history of the Nobel Peace Prize.

When Liu passed away in 2017, the Chairperson of the Nobel Peace Prize committee expressed his regret by saying, “We understand his (Liu’s) chair will forever remain empty .” Liu Xiaobo’s death became, like his predecessor Carl von Ossietzky, another Nobel Peace Laureate who died in prison.

Events leading to Liu’s death…

On the 26 June 2017, an announcement was made by the Prison responsible for Liu’s detention that he had liver cancer.

The international community urged the Chinese Government to allow Liu to travel overseas to seek expert medical treatment, but was refused by the Government without providing  reasons.

The world watched as Liu’s life slowly ebbed away. On 13 July, Liu passed away and within three days, his remains were ceremoniously cremated and his ashes were scattered to the sea; some believed that the expedient cremation and the disposal of his remains that prevented the creation of his tomb stone was the Chinese authorities’ means of preventing any protest in his name. Indeed, by scattering his ashes into the ocean, it was a way to “bury his legacy”; hoping he will be forgotten in Chinese history.

Aspiring to Great Universal Love of Humanitarian values ....

A year after Liu Xiaobo’s death, his wife Liu Xia (who was under house arrest since Liu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize) was given permission to travel to Germany by the Chinese Government. But she could hardly accept the death of her husband.

The deprivation of freedom caused Liu Xia to suffer from heart problems and acute depression. The dissent from Liu Xiaobo had also caused her brother to be imprisoned for 11 years.

“Even if I was grounded into dust, I would still embrace and comfort you with my ashes,” says Liu in his article “I Have No Enemy: My Final Statement”. He expressed his deepest affection and regret to his wife Liu Xia. His love transcended beyond that to himself and to his family. Liu wrote, “My wish is that I can transcend beyond my personal experience to witness the development of my country and the changes to society. I will use the greatest kindness to dissolve the regime’s hostility, and to dissolve hatred with love.”

Upon hearing about Liu’s death, the mother of one who was killed at the June 4th Massacre, Professor Ding Zilin praised him for “possessing the greatest universal love, that is incomparable with anyone else.”



《等待》
 2011, 木刻, 86x61cm (34x24in)

——方蘇作品

2010年的諾貝爾和平獎頒獎典禮,得獎人是身在牢獄的中國作家劉曉波。頒獎台上空着一張椅子,以示領獎者缺席。在典禮中為劉曉波獻唱的歌曲,包括一首挪威的經典作品《蘇薇姬之歌》。(錄挪威文及英譯與中譯歌詞)

Waiting
2011, woodcut, 86x61cm (34x24in)
The Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony of 2010. The prize was awarded to the imprisoned Chinese writer Liu Xiaobo in absentia. His absence was symbolized by an empty chair at the award ceremony. At the ceremony, the Norwegian Solveig’s Song was specially selected and sung to pay tribute to Liu.
Inscriptions are the lyrics in Norwegian, English and Chinese.

English: 
Perchance both winter and spring will pass,
and next summer, and the entire year:-
but at last you will come, that I know for sure;
and I’ll still be waiting, for I once promised I would.

Chinese:
冬天將消逝,春天亦相隨,
夏日不久留,冉冉一歲移。
知你終來會,相見定有期;
我自長守候,此誓两心知。